Basic concepts on biodegradable biopolymer science are presented in this book, as well as techniques, analyses, standards, and essential criteria for the characterization of biodegradable materials obtained from biopolymers. The development and innovation of products and processes considering the environment are highlighted in this book. All of the applications described have been discussed from the point of view of sustainability. Additionally, this book highlights that biodegradability is a great burden when trying to replace, modify, and/or design existing products, and processes that are highly polluting. Finally, the present book concludes with reflections on the development of biopolymers in different areas, and some of their consequences depending on their biodegradability.