This book examines a topic which is an indispensable part of any production line in the wood industry: the extraction, separation, handling of dust and chips, ensuring clean air in the workrooms, and avoiding health, fire and explosion risks. All scientific backgrounds of these problems are not fully known today, and efforts should be made to fill this gap. The work contains significant new derivations and calculation methods and experimental results to support design and evaluation methods such as particle size distributions depending on wood species and machining, terminal velocity of small wood particles, aerodynamics of suction hoods, a detailed analysis of particle separation in cyclones, selection and evaluation of separation efficiency for appropriate filter selection, energy consumption and transportation efficiency of pneumatic conveying, a comprehensive theory of transport ventilators. Several new details of dust explosion are also included. The calculation methods, practical solutions and recommendations are supported by physically well-established explanations providing long-lasting knowledge.