The book aims at presenting a multidisciplinary view meant to illustrate several significant efforts and results about the contribution of information technologies to make available new resources and enable rationally usage the existing ones in the context of the ever-growing trends to use ever more resources. Authors from various countries have been invited to contribute so that a rather broad and balanced image about the current trends and recent results obtained could result. The proposed book addresses methodologies and information technology-based tools and systems designed for the efficient use of diverse resources such as manpower and human knowledge, natural resources including water, raw materials and end of life products, financial assets, datasets, and even cultural goods. The book is organized in ten chapters. It is intended to be insightful for researchers, instructors, and planers from various domains. It can also be used as an auxiliary material for postgraduate studies in applied informatics, business administration, industrial engineering, engineering and management, computer, and digital humanities.