This volume provides up-to-date information on toxic pollutants in the environment and their harmful effects on human health and nature. The book covers many important aspects of environmental toxicology, such as features, characterization, applications, environmental routes for dispersion, nanotoxicity, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of nanomaterials, with emphasis on radiation toxicology, polar ecotoxicology, plastic toxicology, microbrial toxicology, nanotoxicology and pesticide toxicology. Also discussed is the use of microbes and nanotechnology for medicinal purposes, which has revealed important chemical prototypes in the discovery of new agents, stimulating the use of refined physical techniques and new syntheses of molecules with pharmaceutical applications for human welfare. The chapters also address the fate of nanoparticles in the environment, as well as nanotoxicology mechanisms impacting human health. The book will be of interest to toxicologists, environmental scientists, chemists, and students of microbiology, nanotechnology and pharmacology.