About the Authors
Chapter 1: Food Choices and Human Health
A Lifetime of Nourishment
Genetics, Nutrition, and Individuality
The Human Body and Its Food
The Challenge of Choosing Foods
The Science of Nutrition
Controversy 1: Sorting Impostors from Real Nutrition Experts
Chapter 2: Nutrition Tools - Standards and Guidelines
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Diet Planning Using the USDA Dietary Patterns
Diet Planning in Action
Checking Out Food Labels
Controversy 2: Are Some Foods "Superfoods" for Health?
Chapter 3: The Remarkable Body
The Body's Cells
The Body Fluids and the Circulatory System
The Hormonal and Nervous Systems
The Digestive System
A Letter from Your Digestive Tract
The Excretory System
Controversy 3: Alcohol
Chapter 4: The Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, Glycogen, and Fiber
A Close Look at Carbohydrates
The Need for Carbohydrates
From Carbohydrates to Glucose
The Body's Use of Glucose
What Happens If Blood Glucose Regulation Fails?
Controversy 4: Are Added Sugars "Bad" for You?
Chapter 5: The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols
Introducing the Lipids
A Close Look at Lipids
Lipids in the Body
Storing and Using the Body’s Fat
Dietary Fat, Cholesterol, and Health
Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
The Effects of Processing on Unsaturated Fats
Fat in the Diet
Food Feature: Defensive Dining
Controversy 5: The Lipid Guidelines Debate
Chapter 6: The Proteins and Amino Acids
The Structure of Proteins
Digestion and Absorption of Dietary Protein
The Importance of Protein
Food Protein: Need and Quality
Protein Deficiency and Excess
Controversy 6: Are Plant-Based or Meat-Based Diets Better for Health?
Chapter 7: The Vitamins
Definition and Classification of Vitamins
The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
The Water-Soluble Vitamins
The B Vitamins in Unison
The B Vitamins as Individuals
Controversy 7: Vitamin Supplements: What Arethe Benefits and Risks?
Chapter 8: Water and Minerals
Body Fluids and Minerals
The Major Minerals
The Trace Minerals
Controversy 8: Osteoporosis: Can Lifestyle Choices Reduce the Risk?
Chapter 9: Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight
The Problems of Too Little or Too Much Body Fat
The Body's Energy Balance
Body Weight vs. Body Composition
The Appetite and Its Regulation
Inside-the-Body Theories of Obesity
Outside-the-Body Theories of Obesity
How the Body Loses and Gains Weight
Achieving and Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight
Medical Treatment of Obesity
Controversy 9: The Perils of Eating Disorders
Chapter 10: Performance Nutrition
The Benefits of Fitness
The Essentials of Fitness
Three Energy Systems
The Active Body's Use of Fuels
Vitamins and Minerals - Keys to Performance
Fluids and Temperature Regulation in Physical Activity
Controversy 10: Ergogenic Aids: Breakthroughs, Gimmicks, or Dangers?
Chapter 11: Nutrition and Chronic Diseases
Causation of Chronic Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)
Controversy 11: Nutrient-Drug Interactions: Who Should Be Concerned?
Chapter 12: Food and Water Safety and Food Technology
Microbes and Food Safety
Which Foods Are Most Likely to Cause Illness?
Advances in Microbial Food Safety
Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants in Foods
Water Safety and Sources
Are Food Additives Safe?
Controversy 12: Bioengineered Foods: What Are the Pros and Cons?
Chapter 13: Life Cycle Nutrition: Mother and Infant
Pregnancy: The Impact of Nutrition on the Future
Drinking during Pregnancy
Feeding the Infant
Controversy 13: How Do Today's Food Choices Affect Future Generations?
Chapter 14: Child, Teen, and Older Adult
Early and Middle Childhood
Nutrition in Adolescence
The Later Years
Nutrition in the Later Years
Controversy 14: Childhood Obesity and Early Chronic Diseases
Chapter 15: Hunger and the Future of Food
U.S. Food Insecurity
World Poverty and Hunger
The Malnutrition of Extreme Poverty
The Future Food Supply and the Environment
How Can People Help?
Controversy 15: How Can We Feed Ourselves Sustainably?
Appendix A: Chemical Structures: Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Amino Acids
Appendix B: World Health Organization Guidelines
Appendix C: AIDS to Calculations
Appendix D: Choose Your Foods: Food Lists for Diabetes and Weight Management
Appendix E: Dietary Patterns to Meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Appendix F: Notes
Appendix G: Answers to Chapter Questions Answers to Consumer's Guide Review and Self-Check Questions
Appendix H: Physical Activity Levels and Energy Requirements