This book explores the creation and career of the French Constitution of 1795, operative from the start of the Directory until Napoleon’s takeover in 1799. It explores the composition, history and replacement of the French Revolution’s third Constitution through a focus on the speeches and writings of four sets of political voices discernible in late 1790s France. The four main chapters present these voices as Thermidorians, Conservatives, Republicans and Brumairiens. They reveal the intensity and breadth of the debates generated by the permanent tension between the Constitution and the many ongoing conflicts of the Revolution. Set within and beyond the government and the two legislative chambers, the debates feature numerous conflicts central to the French Revolution including the composition and functions of the public powers, the legitimacy of exceptional laws, the regulation of the press and freedom of religion. This sustained focus on the relationship between the political nation and the Constitution provides a fresh reading of the political culture of the Directory.