This book proposes the use of green infrastructure to balance biodiversity conservation and disaster management. Paddy fields are one example of such infrastructure and are the focus of this book. In Japan, abandoned, once-cultivated land is increasing in the paddy fields due to the aging of society and recent depopulation. The author proposes to consolidate such lands and create wetlands because the paddy fields hold water during heavy rains, which prevents floods and protects cities. This is essential, considering that extreme weather conditions have increased the risk of flood damage in Japan. Not only do such wetlands hold water during the flood season, they also provide habitats for aquatic life and places for children to learn about the natural environment. In addition, fish farming in the wetlands will provide food for many people. The increase in water disasters associated with global warming is occurring not only in Japan but globally. The proposal presented in this book will help government officials around the world, especially those involved in urban and rural planning, to consider disaster management―an idea that will be welcomed by both engineers and biologists.